Volume 5 Number 1 (Spring 1997)
TATIANA D. BULGAKOVA (St. Petersburg): The Creation
of New Spirits in Nanai Shamanism
The Nanai pantheon of the shamanic figures changes
constantly. Some spirits lose their traits and others
are forgotten for one reason or another. At the same
time other spirits turn up and take their place. The
present article deals with two categories of spirits-the
helping spirits of the shamans, the sevens and the spirits
of ancestors, former souls of shaman fathers and mothers,
who were patrons of the clan.
MARTIN HARPER (Macerata): Shamanism and Traditional
Healers in Modern-Day Indonesia
The following article examines the present-day role
of shamen and traditional healers in the Republic of
Indonesia, and how their respective trades are sustained
by the stubborn persistence of essentially animist beliefs
and practices within the archipelago. It goes on to
describe the psychological foundation of certain shamanistic
crafts and cures, and how they have, in many cases,
been adapted to the demands of modern urban life with
some commercial success.
AKE HULTKRANTZ (Stockholm): Some Points of View on
Ecstatic Shamanism, with Particular Reference to American
In recent years the basic ecstatic structure of shamanism
has been questioned by leading representatives of shamanology.
The following article undertakes a reassessment of the
ecstatic elements in shamanism. It is concluded that
if we wish to retain the concept of shamanism as a scholarly
instrument we should stress its ecstatic character.
Particular consideration is given to the meaning of
ecstasy in shamanism.
HYUN-KEY KIM HOGARTH (Canterbury): Pursuit of Happiness
Through Reciprocity: The Korean Shamanistic Ritual
The Korean shamanistic ritual, called kut, is based
on the principle of reciprocity which underpins most
social interactions in Korean society. Analysis of the
three groups of the participants, the spirits, the shamans
and the sponsors, reveal a common denominator, i.e.
grief or grievances. Kut is a festive gathering of mostly
troubled beings, who exchange gifts of consolation with
one another. Through venting and sharing their troubles,
all of them experience catharsis, thus achieving ‘happiness',
which is the ultimate objective of kut, as its etymology
suggests. An implicit faith in the Maussian obligation
to reciprocate, therefore, is the essence of Korean
shamanism. When faced with inexplicable disasters beyond
modern science and technology, sponsoring kut is positive
move by the sufferer to alleviate the pain and despair.
Their belief that the spirits will reciprocate with
blessing in return fir their gifts gives them confidence
and hope, which helps them get over difficult times.
The modern Korean people, therefore, will continue to
sponsor kut not only for "joy of public giving",
but also for the solace that their faith in the spirits'
obligation to reciprocate brings them.
QI CHESHAN (Urumqi): Contemporary Shamans and the "Shaman's
Handbook" of the Sibe
The Sibe have practised shamanic ritual continuously
up to the present day. In Chapchal today there are more
than ten practising shamans, and new ones are being
initiated. Two handwritten manuscripts, "shaman's
handbooks" have been discovered, they are, in effect,
shamans' teaching manuals. In this article I address
several questions: 1) the "shaman's handbook"
2) how shamans are chosen 3) the shaman's mirror (toli)
4) the ladder of knives 5) the shaman's ritual objects
6) sacrifice 7) the 18 karun and the shaman's spirit
painting 8) some names and other problems.
ZHONG JINWEN (Beijing) and MARTI ROOS (Leiden): Linguistic
Notes to "Shamanism in Yughur Folk Tales"
Volume 5 Number 2 (Autumn 1997)
FIRDAUS G. KHISAMITDINOVA (Ufa): Healing Magic Among
Bashkir healing magic was little studied before the
late 1980s, but recent years have seen a growth in interest
and a proliferation of publications on the subject.
Based both on her own fieldwork and on hitherto unpublished
data, the author discusses the Bashkir demons osoq,
yelpew, sarpiw and büder, which are held to be responsible
for a number of diseases. Consideration is also given
to linguistic evidence and a wider Turkic context.
FRANK KRESSING (Ulm): Candidates for a Theory of Shamanism.
A Systematic Survey of Recent Research Results from
Eurasia and Native America
The article investigates the distribution of some central
features of shamanism among cultures of Northern Eurasia
and Native America. So far, little scientific attention
has been given to the question whether, first, shamans
remember the experiences and actions they have in a
state of trance and, second, to what extent the way
shamanic trance is induced influences memory and controlled
actions during trance. As will be shown, investigation
of shamanism is partly hindered by the usual anthropological
bias of "mute anthropology", as opposed to
the method of "speaking anthropology".
SONG HEPING (Jilin): The Dances of Manchu Shamans
The Manchu shaman performs dances whilst making offerings
to the gods. Of these shamanic dance types two warrant
special attention: 1) the "high deity offering",
alternatively called the "field" or "great
deity's dance" and 2) the "family deity offering".
It is these types of shamanic dances and in particular
the former-during which the shaman attains an altered
and heightened state of consciousness-which I intend
to discuss in this article. The two dance forms documented
in this paper are performed by the shamans of Manchu
families residing in rural parts of North-East China
and are still practised today.
KIRA VAN DEUSEN (Vancouver): Ul'chi Shamans and Storytellers:
Field Report, August 1995
Catherine U. Köhalmi's Reply to R. A. Miller's Criticism
Concerning her Review of R. A. Miller and Nelly Naumann's
Book, Altjapanisch FaFuri (by Catherine U. Köhalmi)
A. F. ANISIMOV. Kosmologische Vorstellungen der Völker
Nordasiens (by Catherine U. Köhalmi)
WALTHER HEISSIG (Hrsg.) Formen und Funktion mündlicher
Tradition (by Catherine U. Köhalmi)
MIHÁLY HOPPÁL. Schamanen und Schamanismus (by Ake Hultkrantz)
ROY A. MILLER und NELLY NAUMANN. Altaische schamanistische
Termini im Japanischen (by György Kara)
A. A. POPOV. Materialen zur Bibliographie der russischen
Literatur über das Schamanentum der Völker Nordasiens
(by Catherine U. Köhalmi)
L. QURCHABAGATUR and CH. ÜJÜM-E. Mongol-un böge mörgöl-ün
tayilg-a takilg-a-yin soyul [Offerings and Rituals of
Mongolian Shamanism] (by Ágnes Birtalan)